ANTIQUE MARKET IN EUROPE, FAKES IN THE ANTIQUE MARKET
Developed art market appears in the XVII century. in the Netherlands, which was the first in Europe to become a bourgeois Republic. This is where the relationship between the artist and the customer develops. The state and the Church are no longer the main customers, and there are private buyers, which means that the market for art and Antiques. Before that, the Church was the main customer of art objects for artists – in Italy, Germany, and England. As such, secular art did not exist in Europe before the Renaissance.
In the XVIII century antique trade appears in virtually all countries, including Russia. The antique market in St. Petersburg and even partly in Moscow is already active in the 18th century. Visitors and local antique dealers are active. In Europe at this time, the two main centers of antique trade remain Paris and Rome.
PARIS-THE CENTER OF ARTISTIC LIFE OF THE XVIII CENTURY
Paris was the leader of artistic life. It was France in the XVIII century that dictated taste and fashion, where the market for contemporary art was very developed. Almost everything connected with the market of modern art appeared in Paris in the XVIII century. the concept of salon is Actively used – it is a regular exhibition of the XVIII century, held in the Louvre, then gradually moving to other exhibition spaces. The exhibition and sale of art that took place regularly in France successfully solved the main goal of the French salon – helping the artist and the buyer find each other.
In France, art criticism is developing, taking on the role of an intermediary between the artist and the buyer. One of the most famous French art popularizers is Denis Diderot, who was an art critic who actively promoted contemporary art. Such famous artists as Jean-Baptiste Grez and Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin made a name and gained fame largely thanks to the efforts of Diderot.
In art criticism, a significant place was taken by the press, which gave announcements of Salons and published responses to them. Diderot was a significant figure in the antique market of France at that time. Now it would be called a dealer. He is noted for his collaboration with Catherine II, for whom he sought important and interesting paintings. Thanks to him, in the 1830s, part of the collection of old masters was transferred to the Hermitage. For example, the story of Poussin’s Hercules, which Diderot quickly bought from a card-losing collector and sold to Catherine II, is indicative.
At the same time, catalogues of French salons appear – all of them have been documented since 1699. Currently, you can take a catalog and see which paintings were exhibited at the Paris Salon. Publishing catalogs became increasingly important. So an exhibition without a catalog is not an exhibition, the French thought. In Russia, this practice was not even in the XIX century, which is why it is more difficult to restore the exhibition life of Moscow in the 1890s than in Paris in the XVIII century.
Paris in the eighteenth century was also the center of the antique market: there were many collectors of old art, guided by the examples of French kings. At all times, it is noted that if wealthy people begin to collect a private collection, they imitate the king, the king, etc.as recognized examples of taste. In Paris at the beginning of the XVIII century. Italian painting was very popular, which was taken as a standard of artistic taste. In 1830-40 – there was a fashion for Dutch and Flemish painting. The horizons of collectors and professionals were constantly expanding.
Gradually, the interest of European collectors, who had previously given preference exclusively to Italians, moved North. Flemish painting became increasingly popular. There was a tendency to buy out the Flemish High Renaissance, which was in the collections of the Habsburgs, in the aristocratic Italian galleries.
Following the example of Paris, other centers of antique trade are also developing. In the eighteenth century a very active antique market in St. Petersburg – a lot of people buy paintings. Not only the upper-class aristocrats, but also the middle-class nobility were involved in this new wave of love for art. Catalogues and publications of the collections of the nobles Yusupov and Stroganov have been preserved.
It is noteworthy that 1717 Yusupov among 20 young Russian boyars was sent by order of Peter I to France to study at the Toulon school of midshipmen. On his return, he brought a large collection of old paintings. Italians and Frenchmen imported Antiques and works of art, for example, Hermann Johann Klostermann, a German who was born in Holland and had been living in Russia since the age of twelve, sold paintings in St. Petersburg. There were also famous people who sold Antiques – Fonvizin traded with Klostermann. The art trade was then a good source of income.
Many of klostermann’s paintings were included in the Hermitage collection. Klosterman has always left some kind of mark, labels on the back of the painting. This fact is very important in matters of attribution of paintings. So a careful study of the back of the canvas helps to restore its history. There are numbers of the Hermitage or other important marks.
ROME – THE SECOND CENTER OF THE ART MARKET IN EUROPE OF THE XVIII CENTURY
In addition to Paris in the XVIII century. the Center of the art market in Europe is Rome. Of particular importance in the art market are works of ancient art, which were very popular among travelers coming to Italy. In the eighteenth century In Rome was heavily sold works of ancient art. Much of what is considered to be the work of ancient masters was collected from fragments and completed by restorers: assemblage. We can give an example of the collection of Ludovisi, which is basically private, it was formed in the XVII-XVIII century. each sculpture has a diagram with a diagram of attached pieces.
In view of this, there is a lot of debate among art critics whether to consider such items a fake or not. From the point of view of the modern collector-Yes, but from the point of view of the person of the XVIII century-no. At that time, antique items with losses were not as valued as” restored “items to their” original ” state. It is known that even the great master Bernini was engaged in such finishing works in his youth.
One of the prominent falsifiers of art was Winkleman. When he served cardinal Albani, he was engaged in the confirmation and publication of such prefabricated sculptures, where only parts belonged to a prominent master, and the rest was completed by a group of”colleagues”. Indeed, it was not considered shameful at the time. Modern ideas about the authenticity of objects are difficult to apply to restoration works of masters of the XVIII-XIX centuries.
In the XVIII century, copies were highly valued. Very often, the customer could not afford to buy a picture of Raphael’s work, so a good copy was bought, which at that time was not considered shameful, but on the contrary, emphasized the refinement of the taste of the owner of the picture. In this regard, dozens of paintings by “Raphael” appear in catalogues of the XVIII century. although the authors of catalogs at that time were well aware of the nature of the picture, but considered such copies worthy of being presented in the catalog. In addition, it significantly increased sales revenue. In auction catalogues at that time and at the present time, “Raphael”is often found. There are many more such paintings than were written by this fine artist.
The antique trade was constantly developing, but in its essence remained very conservative. Everything that now exists in it repeats the practice created during the XVIII-XIX centuries. Famous auction houses such as Christie’s and Sotheby’s originate in the XVIII century. the First auctions held in Paris were organized when it was necessary to sell the property after the death of the owner of the collection. The same practice of selling off property exists at the present time. The Antiques market gets real masterpieces mainly in the case when the heirs sell the collection after the death of the Creator. Only with rare exceptions, the tradition of hereditary inheritance of collections continues, but the number of such famous collections and dynasties is very limited. So the most famous 20 names and dynasties, when the heirs do not sell, but continue to multiply the famous collections created by generations. The quality of works in such collections is such that the rare appearance of paintings or other art objects from such collections becomes a real event and sensation of the art market and attracts everyone’s attention.