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Soviet painting-the history of modern art

The culture of the Soviet and post-Soviet period is a bright large-scale turn of the Russian heritage. The events of 1917 became a reporting point in the development of a new way of life, the formation of new thinking. The mood of society in the late XIX-early XX centuries resulted in the October revolution, a turning point in the history of the country. Now she had a new future with her own ideals and goals. Art, which in a sense is a mirror of the era, has also become a tool for implementing the tenets of the new regime. In contrast to other types of artistic creativity, painting, forming and shaping the thought of a person, most accurately and directly penetrated into the minds of people. On the other hand, pictorial art was least subject to the propaganda function and reflected the experiences of the people, their dreams and, above all, the spirit of the time.

Russian vanguard
The new art did not completely avoid the old traditions. Painting, in the first post-revolutionary years, absorbed the influences of the futurists and the avant-garde in General. The avant-garde, with its contempt for the traditions of the past, which was so close to the destructive ideas of the revolution, found adherents in the face of young artists. In parallel with these trends in the visual arts, realistic tendencies developed, which were given life by the critical realism of the XIX century. this bipolarity, which matured at the time of the change of epochs, made the life of the artist of that time particularly stressful. Two ways that emerged in post-revolutionary painting, although they were opposites, nevertheless, we can observe the influence of the avant-garde on the work of artists of the realistic direction. Realism itself in those years was diverse. Works of this style have a symbolic, agitational and even romantic appearance. The work of B. M. Kustodiev – “Bolshevik” and “New planet” by K. F. Yuon, filled with pathetic tragedy and irrepressible exultation, accurately conveys in symbolic form the grandiose change in the life of the country.

Soviet painting Picture Bolshevik. Kustodiev. One thousand nine hundred twenty

Bolshevik. Kustodiev. One thousand nine hundred twenty

Soviet painting, a painting by K. F. Huon. New planet. One thousand nine hundred twenty one

K. F. Huon. New planet. One thousand nine hundred twenty one

The painting of P. N. Filonov with his special creative method – “analytical realism ” – is a fusion of two contrasting artistic trends, which we can see on the example of the cycle with the agitation name and the meaning “Entering the world’s heyday”.

Soviet painting a picture of P. N. Filonov Ships from the cycle Entering the world’s heyday. 1919 GTG

P. N. Filonov Ships from the Introduction to world prosperity cycle. 1919 GTG

Unquestioning universal values, unshakable even in such a troubled time, expresses the image of the beautiful “Petrograd Madonna” (ofic. title ” 1918 in Petrograd”) by K. S. Petrov-Vodkin.

Soviet painting picture 1918 in Petrograd (or Petrograd Madonna). K. S. Petrov-Vodkin. 1920 GTG

1918 in Petrograd (or the Petrograd Madonna). K. S. Petrov-Vodkin. 1920 GTG

Positive attitude to the revolutionary events infects the bright and filled with a Sunny, airy atmosphere of the work of landscape painter A. A. Rylov. The landscape ” Sunset”, in which the artist expressed a premonition of the fire of the revolution, which will flare up from the increasing flame of the judgment fire over the past era, is one of the inspiring symbols of this time.

Soviet painting picture Sunset. A. A. Rylov. One thousand nine hundred seventeen

Sunset. A. A. Rylov. One thousand nine hundred seventeen

Along with the symbolic images that organize the rise of the national spirit and carry with them, like an obsession, there was also a direction in realistic painting, with a craving for a concrete transfer of reality.
To this day, the works of this period contain a spark of rebellion that can manifest itself within each of us. Many works that are not endowed with such qualities or contradict them, were destroyed or forgotten, and will never be presented to our eyes.
The avant-garde always leaves its mark in realistic painting, but there comes a period of intensive development of the direction of realism.

Time of art associations
The 1920s – the time of creating a new world on the ruins left by the Civil war. For art – this is a period in which various creative associations have launched their activities in full force. Their principles are partly formed by early artistic groupings. Association of artists of the revolution (1922-AHRR, 1928-AHR), personally carried out orders of the state. Under the slogan of “heroic realism”, the artists who were part of it documented the life and life of a person-the brainchild of the revolution, in various genres of painting. The main representatives of AHRR was Brodsky, absorbed the realistic effects of Repin, worked in the historical-revolutionary genre, and created a series of works depicting V. I. Lenin, M. E. chepcov – master of genre, M. B. Grekov, who wrote the battle scenes in a rather impressionistic madder. All these masters were the founders of the genres in which they performed most of their work. Among them stands out the painting “Lenin in Smolny”, in Which Brodsky in the most direct and sincere form conveyed the image of the leader.

Lenin in the Smolny. I. I. Brodsky. One thousand nine hundred thirty

Lenin in the Smolny. I. I. Brodsky. One thousand nine hundred thirty

In the picture “Meeting of the member cell” E. I. Cheptsov very reliably, without artificiality depicts the events that took place in the life of the people.

M. B. Grekov creates a magnificent joyful, noisy image filled with rapid movement and a victory celebration in the composition “Trumpeters of the First horse army”.

Romantic realism Painting Trumpeters Of the first mounted army. M. The Greeks. One thousand nine hundred thirty four

Trumpeters Of the first mounted army. M. The Greeks. One thousand nine hundred thirty four

The idea of a new person, a new image of a person is expressed by the trends emerging in the genre of portrait, the bright masters of which were C. V. Malyutin and G. G. Ryazhsky. In the portrait of the writer-fighter Dmitry Furmanov, S. V. Malyutin shows a man of the old world who managed to fit into the new world. A new trend that originated in the work of N. A. Kasatkin and developed in the highest degree in the female images of G. G. Ryazhsky – “Delegate”, “Chairwoman”, in which the personal beginning is erased and the type of person created by the new world is established.
An absolutely accurate impression is formed about the development of the landscape genre when you see the work of the advanced landscape painter B. N. Yakovlev – “Transport is getting better”.

The art of social realism the Picture of B. N. Yakovlev is getting better. One thousand nine hundred twenty three

B. N. Yakovlev Transport is getting better. One thousand nine hundred twenty three

This genre depicts a country that is being updated, and the normalization of all spheres of life. In these years, the industrial landscape comes to the fore, the images of which become symbols of creation.
The society of easel artists (1925) was the next artistic Association in this period. Here the artist sought to convey the spirit of modernity, the type of a new person resorting to a more detached transfer of images at the expense of a minimum number of expressive means. The works of “Ostovtsev” often demonstrate the theme of sports. Their paintings are filled with dynamics and expression, which can be seen in the works of A. A. Deineka “defense of Petrograd”, Yu. P. Pimenov “Football”, etc.

Socialist realism in Soviet art, the painting the defense of Petrograd. A. Deineka. One thousand nine hundred twenty eight

The Defense Of Petrograd. A. Deineka. One thousand nine hundred twenty eight

The members of another well – known Association – “Four arts” – chose the expressiveness of the image as the basis for their artistic creativity, due to its laconic and constructive form, as well as a special attitude to its coloristic saturation. The most memorable representative of the Association is K. S. Petrov-Vodkin and one of his most outstanding works of this period – “Death of the Commissar”, which reveals a deep symbolic image, a symbol of the struggle for a better life, through a special pictorial language.

Romantic realism Painting The death of a Commissar. K. Petrov-Vodkin. One thousand nine hundred twenty eight

Death of the Commissioner. K. Petrov-Vodkin. One thousand nine hundred twenty eight

P. V. Kuznetsov is also distinguished from the “Four arts” by his works dedicated to the East.
The last major artistic Association of this period is the Society of Moscow artists (1928), which differs from the others in the manner of energetic modeling of volumes, attention to chiaroscuro and plastic expressiveness of form. Almost all representatives were members of the “bubnovy Volta” – adherents of futurism – which greatly affected their work. The works of P. p. Konchalovsky, who worked in different genres, were illustrative. For example, the portraits of his wife O. V. konchalovskaya convey the specifics of not only the author’s hand, but also the painting of the entire Association.

The heyday of social realism, romantic realism in Soviet painting
The resolution “on the restructuring of literary and artistic organizations” on April 23, 1932, dissolved all artistic associations and created the Union of artists of the USSR. Creativity has fallen into the ominous fetters of rigid ideologization. The artist’s freedom of expression – the basis of the creative process-was violated. Despite this break, artists previously United in communities continued their work, but new figures took the leading role in the painting environment.
B. V. Ioganson was influenced by I. E. Repin and V. I. Surikov. his paintings show a compositional search and interesting possibilities in the color solution, but the author’s paintings are marked by an excessive satirical attitude, unsuitable in such a naturalistic manner that we can observe on the example of the painting “At the old Ural factory”.

Painting of social realism by B. p. Johansen. At the old Ural factory. One thousand nine hundred thirty seven

B. P. Johansen. At the old Ural factory. One thousand nine hundred thirty seven

A. A. Deyneka does not remain aloof from the “official” line of art. He is still true to his artistic principles. Now he continues to work in genre subjects, besides painting portraits and landscapes. The picture “Future pilots” well shows his painting during this period: romantic, easy.

Future pilots. A. Deineka. One thousand nine hundred thirty eight

Future pilots. A. Deineka. One thousand nine hundred thirty eight

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